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Antibacterial Evaluation Of Nigerian ocimum Sanctum Leaf Extracts Against Bacterial Isolates Associated With Urinary Tract Infection

  (Vol. 6 Number 1) by Kome Otokunefor1* And Benjamin Dappa2.  

With the high socioeconomic burden associated with urinary tract infections (UTI), global increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, and the need for alternate sources of antimicrobial agents, there is an increasing focus on possible role of plants as a source of antimicrobials. The effect of one such plant (Ocimum sanctum) has not been widely studied in Nigeria. This study set out to explore the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Nigerian Ocimum sanctum against MDR isolates associated with UTI. The antibacterial activity of three Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts (aqueous, ethyl acetate and ethanol) were tested at varying concentrations (50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml and 3.125 mg/ml) against 5 MDR clinical isolates using the agar well diffusion test. These yielded zones of inhibition ranging from 0 mm to 24 mm. Of the three extracts, the ethanol extract was the most effective with antibacterial activity noted against MDR Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations as low as 12.5 mg/ml. However though, none of the three extracts showed antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Ethanol extracts of Nigerian Ocimum sanctum, showed promising results against some MDR UTI bacterial isolates. This study provides the first report on antibacterial activity of extracts of Ocimum sanctum against MDR isolates, perhaps pointing at a future possible use of this plant extract or its active ingredient in therapy.
KEYWORDS: Ocimum sanctum, antibacterial activity, MDR, UTI, Nigeria

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