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Investigation Of The In Vivo Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of hippocratea Africana Root Extracts By Modelinfection And Protection Test In Mice Against Bacterial Isolates From Infectious Diarrhoeal An

  (Vol. 9 Number 3) by 1*ekong U. S., 2udoh, D. I., 1alozie, M. F., 1udofa, E. J. And 1akpaide N. I.  

Diarrhoea is the frequent passage of unformed, loose or watery stools within a day with or without the presence of blood and mucus. It is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in many rural communities and urban centres in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative andaffordable treatment strategies against the costly orthodox therapy for diarrhea by the use of herbal drugs from medicinal plants, one of which is Hippocratea africana. Pulverized H. africana roots were extracted by coldmarceration and stored at 4 oC until used.. Bacterial- diarrahoeic cultures were isolated from composite diarrhoeal stool samples by pour-plating in selective/differential media, and identified by standard microbiological procedures. In vitro anti-diarrhoeal activity of H. africana extracts was determined by the modified agar-well diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum biocidal concentration (MBC) and the mode of activity were determined by the reference standard agar-dilution test (ADT). In vivo anti-diarrhoeal activity and protection efficacy were assayed by mouse protection test (MPT) model. Forty eight(48) bacterio-diarrhoeic cultures were isolated and identified, with the numbers and percentages occurrence as follows; Escherichia coli, 11 (22.91%); Salmonella typhi, 6 (12.5%); Shigella dysentariae, 7 (14.6%); Vibrio cholera 7 (14.6%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 (4.2%); Campylobacter jejuni, 8(16.7%); Staphylococcus aureus, 3 (6.3%) and Clostridium difficle, 4 (8.3%). H. africana root extracts exhibited in vitro broad spectrum, concentration-dependent, bactericidal anti-diarrhoeal activity and potency against the bacterio-diarrhoeic isolates with significantly (p<0.05) lower MIC (3.13-12.5 mg/ml) and correspondingly lower MBC values (12.5 – 25.0 mg/ml) values respectively, compared with the control. In the in vivo MPT, H. africana root extracts offered appreciable (83.3 – 100.0 %) protection to the bacterio-diarrhoeic challenged experimental animals, compared with the none or averagely (0.00-50.0 %) protection in the control.

Keywords: Investigation, In vivo, Antidiarrhoeal-activity, Mouse Protection Test, H. africana, Root- extracts, Bacterio-diarrhoeic Isolates, Gastroenteritis.

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